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Pain
An unpleasant sensation associated with actual or potential tissue damage, and mediated by specific nerve fibers to the brain where its conscious appreciation may be modified by various factors.
Papilledema
Swelling of the optic nerve head, can be seen in the back of the retina during eye examination.
Paraplegia
Paralysis of the lower part of the body including the legs.
Paravertebral Muscle Spasm
Spasm in the muscles on either side of the spinous processes (midline of the back); the term may be used to describe a physical finding or improperly used to define a disease process.
Parietal Lobe
The middle portion of each cerebral hemisphere.
Pars Interarticulars
The posterior continuation of the spinal arch from the pedicle; the superior and inferior facets are connected to each other by the pars interarticulars.
Pathologic
Generalized or localized bone disease is present.
Pathology
The study of disease states.
Pectoral (also Pectoralis)
Relating to the chest.
Pedicle
The part of each side of the neural arch of a vertebra. It connects the lamina with the vertebral body. The first portion of the posterior spine arising from the vertebral body.
Periosteum
A fibrous membrane that covers the surface of bone except at the end of the bones where it is covered with cartilage as part of a joint. In children, periosteum is involved in forming new bone and molding the configuration of bone; and in the adult, the periosteum forms new bone secondary to injury or infection.
Peritoneal Cavity
Body cavity in which the abdominal organs are situated.
Phrenic Nerve
Nerve arising from three cervical nerve roots (C-3 to C-5); supplies the diaphragm.
Physical
Relating to the body, as distinguished from the mind.
Physical Therapy
The treatment consisting of exercising specific parts of the body such as the legs, arms, hands or neck, in an effort to strengthen, regain range of motion, relearn movement and/or rehabilitate the musculoskeletal system to improve function.
Physiology
The science of the functioning of living organisms, and of their component systems or parts.
Piriformis Syndrome
A clinical diagnosis based on complaints of pain and abnormal sensations in the buttocks region with extension into the hips and posterior thigh as would be seen in sciatica.
Pituitary
Gland at base of the brain which secretes hormones into the blood stream. Those hormones then regulate other glands including the thyroid, adrenals and gonads. The "Master Gland".
Platysma
Thin outermost muscle layer of the anterior neck.
Plexitis
Inflammation of the plexus.
Plexus
A network or interjoining of nerves and blood vessels or of lymphatic vessels.
Polyneuritis
Inflammation of two or more nerves simultaneously.
Porencephaly
Abnormal cavity within brain tissue, usually resulting from outpouching of a lateral ventricle.
Posterior
The back of the body or situated nearer the back of the body.
Posterior Approach
Used for laminectomies and spinal fusions at any level; Hibbs, Wagoner.
Posterior Cervical Spinal Fusion
Spinal fusion done from the back, using the lamina, facets, and spinous processes of the neck.
Posterior Neck Muscles
Splenius, spinalis, and semispinalis.
Posterior Fossa
The internal base of the skull.
Posterior Lumbar Spinal Fusion
Spinal fusion done from the back using the lamina, the facets, and spinous processes of the lower back.
Posterior Spinal Fusion
A fusion of the cervical, thoracic, or lumbar regions primarily fusing the lamina and sometimes the facet joints, using iliac or other bone graft.
Posterior Spinal Muscle Segments
Upper and lower posterior serratus m., spinalis m., semispinalis m., and rotators.
Posterolateral (p/l)
Behind and to one side, specifically to the outer side.
Posterolateral Interbody Fusion (plif)
Lumbar spine fusion that involves an interbody fusion accomplished through the posterior approach.
Posterolateral Fusion
A fusion of both the lamina and transverse process, using the iliac bone for graft, usually in the lower lumbar and first sacral segments.
Post-ictal
State following a seizure, often characterized by altered function of the limbs and/or mentation.
Posture
The position of the limbs or the carriage of the body as a whole.
Pott D
Tuberculosis of the spine, usually in the lower thoracic segments.
Powered Surgical Instruments
Instruments which are powered by compressed air or electricity and are used in surgical procedures to cut, drill, or otherwise remove bone and cartilage, as well as to evacuate fluids.
Pre-clinical Studies
Tests occurring prior to clinical studies, usually in vitro or in vivo involving animals. The purpose of these studies is to determine the safety and efficacy of the test material.
Premarket Notification [510(k)]
A regulatory method for gaining clearance from the FDA to market a device. The FDA is petitioned by a company to determine if a particular medical device is "substantially equivalent" to a device which was commercially available prior to May 28, 1976. This method usually applies to Class I or II medical devices.
Premarket Approval (pma)
A regulatory method for gaining a marketing clearance from the FDA for a Class III medical device. A company submits information to the FDA that documents the safety and effectiveness of the device.
Pronator
A muscle which turns a part into the prone position.
Proprioception
Sensation concerning movements of joints and position of the body in space.
Prosthesis
An artificial body part such as an artificial leg or arm. The term prosthesis is also used to describe some of the implants used in the body such as a hip or knee replacement device.
Protrusion
Displaced nuclear material causes a discrete bulge in the annulus, but no material escapes through the annular fibers.
Proximal
Nearest the center of the body.
Pseudotumor Cerebri
Raised intracranial pressure, usually causing only headache and papilledema. No clear underlying structural abnormality.
Pseudoarthrosis (also Pseudarthrosis)
A form of non-union in which there is the formation of a false joint with some cartilage covering the ends of the bones and a cavity containing fluid that resembles a normal joint.
Pseudoclauducation
Increased pain and decreased strength in lower limbs associated with physical activity. Complaints are similar to those caused by insufficient blood supply to the limb but are caused by diminished blood supply to the nerves in a narrowed spinal canal.
Pupil
The black part of the eye through which light enters; enlarges in dim light and decreases in size in bright light.
Pyramidal Tract
Carries the voluntary muscle messages from the brain.